How is Health Inequality Measured and Monitored?

National and international organizations to tackle health inequalitiesCommon indicators and methods for monitoring health inequalitiesAssessment of health inequalities based on three diseasesReferences Further reading  Health inequality is associated with measuring and comparing health outcomes of various groups. Some common parameters of measurement are life expectancy, rate of diseases, and disease-free life […]

What is Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias-Cloacal Exstrophy Complex?

BEECCause and symptomsEpidemiologyDiagnosis and treatmentReferencesFurther reading Bladder exstrophy-epispadias-cloacal exstrophy complex is the most severe form of the BEEC (Bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex), constituting 10% of all the cases. In this condition, an abdominal wall defect causes bladder and large intestine extrusion, leading to anal, genital, and colon abnormalities. BEEC is a […]

Using Brain Maps to Predict Behaviors

IntroductionTechniques to Uncover Brain MapsLesion Studies and Their Influence in NeuropsychologyThe Utility of Functional Neuroimaging in Brain MappingBrain Mapping at a Cellular Level: the ConnectomeWhere will Brain Maps Lead us in the Future?ReferencesFurther Reading Neuropsychology is a subdivision of psychology and neurology which refers to the relationship between an individual’s […]

What has COVID-19 taught us About Infectious Diseases?

IntroductionWhat Have We Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic?EpidemiologyVirologyClinicalDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionIn ConclusionReferences The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic involving a novel pathogen has exposed critical gaps in our knowledge about detecting, managing, treating, and preventing infectious diseases. A survey of lessons learned has been distilled under the following categories: epidemiology, virology, clinical, diagnosis, […]

The Sustainable Management of Healthcare Waste

IntroductionElements of Sustainable HCW ManagementThe Importance of RegulationChoosing HCWM FacilitiesInternational RegulationDisposal of HCWReferencesFurther Reading Healthcare waste management (HCWM) has become a major challenge as healthcare becomes more sophisticated, population size increases and healthcare facilities expand. All these factors demand the use of more equipment and consumables, much of which ends […]

Social Identification and Mental Health

IntroductionGroup identification and mental healthGroup identification and adolescent mental healthMultiple group identifications and mental healthReferences Further reading  What are people's perceptions of themselves, and how do they view themselves? Because people's perceptions of themselves are affected by the environment they experience, they look outside of themselves to the social context. Identity […]

The Role of Breath Analysis in Diagnosing Disease

Key breath metabolitesCommon techniques associated with breath analysisCollection and analysis of stored breath samplesDiagnosis of disease using volatile biomarkersCommercial production of breath analyzers for disease detectionReferences Further reading Breath is an important matrix for analyzing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generated within the body. These compounds travel through the blood […]

How Can Sleep Affect Men's Health?

Introduction What is Considered to be Appropriate Sleep? The Interrelationship Between Disrupted or Inadequate Sleep and the Manifestation of Disease Sleep and Erectile Dysfunction Sleep and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Sleep and Male Fertility Conclusion References Further Reading Sleep is known to affect several systems and processes in the body. […]