Coronavirus makes changes in the body cells that cause cells not to recognise it, suggest researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio).
The researchers reported how the coronavirus achieves this in the journal Nature Communications.
The scientists resolved the structure of an enzyme called nsp16, which the virus produces and then uses to modify its messenger RNA cap, said Yogesh Gupta, PhD, the study lead author from the Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long School of Medicine at UT Health San Antonio.
“It’s a camouflage,” Dr Gupta said. “Because of the modifications, which fool the cell, the resulting viral messenger RNA is now considered as part of the cell’s own code and not foreign.”
Deciphering the 3D structure of nsp16 paves the way for the rational design of antiviral drugs for COVID-19 and other emerging coronavirus infections, Dr Gupta said. The drugs, new small molecules, would inhibit nsp16 from making the modifications. The immune system would then pounce on the invading virus, recognising it as foreign.
“Yogesh’s work discovered the 3D structure of a key enzyme of the COVID-19 virus required for its replication and found a pocket in it that can be targeted to inhibit that enzyme. This is a fundamental advance in our understanding of the virus,” said study co-author Robert Hromas, MD, professor and dean of the Long School of Medicine.
Dr Gupta is an assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology at UT Health San Antonio and is a member of the university’s Greehey Children’s Cancer Research Institute.
In layman’s terms, messenger RNA can be described as a deliverer of genetic code to worksites that produce proteins.
(This story has been published from a wire agency feed without modifications to the text. Only the headline has been changed.)
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